The Czech Republic and the Czech Political System

13. března 2018 v 8:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

The Czech Republic and the Czech Political System

The Czech Republic is located in the middle of Europe. Because of that, it is often called "The Heart of Europe". It shares borders with Germany in the northwest and west, Austria in the south, Slovakia in the east and Poland in the northeast. The country is made up of 3 territories- Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. These ate then divided into 14 regions with their own regional assembly and regional governor. Prague is the capital and one of the 14 regions; it's also the largest city with more than 1 million citizens. The overall population of the Czech Republic is 10,5 million people. This number of people mostly consists of Czechs, but they are also Moravians, Slovaks, Poles and Silesians. There is also over half a million of foreigners, which includes Romani people, Ukrainians, Russians, Vietnamese, German, etc…
The landscape is hilly and quite mountainous around the borders; in fact the mountains such as Krkonoše, Šumava or Krušné hory form natural boundaries. The highest peak is Sněžka Mountain with 1600 meters located in Krkonoše mountain range. From the central of the country to the south, it is mainly lowlands. Through the country flow many rivers, for example the Elbe and the Vltava, which is also the longest river. Southers Bohemia is famous for its many ponds. The Czech Republic has moderate continental climate, which means warm summers and cold, snowy winters. The temperature difference between summer and winter is relatively high, due to the landlocked geographical position. The coldest month is usually January and the warmest is July.
The Czech republic is full of interesting places, for example Karlovy Vary (which is a city where International Film Festival is held every year), Říp mountain/hill (the place where according to legend Father Czech proclaimed the land before him as Bohemia), Karlštejn ( a famous castle built by Charles IV as a safe place for crown jewels), Macocha (an abyss more than 138 meters deep, part of the Moravia Karst-famous for stalactite caves), Pravčická brána (the largest natural sandstone arch in Europe) and of course Prague (capital city, historical, political and cultural centre).
The Czech Republic is a sovereign, united and democratic state. Its government is divided into three branches: The legislative (represented by the Parliament), The executive (represented by the president and government) and The judicial (represented by the courts at various levels).
The Parliament consists of two chambers- The chamber of Deputies and The Senate. The 200 Deputies and 81 Senators have the exclusive duty of making laws. These two groups of members of Parliament differ in the way in which they are elected. The elections of the Chambers of Deputies take place every four years while every two years one third of Senate is renewed. When these times come every citizen from the age of 18 has the right to vote. The Parliament's main task is to pass laws, ratify international treaties and decide sending troops abroad. The Parliament is a law-making body. A new law-to-be, a bill, can be proposed by a deputy, a group of deputies, the senate, the government or higher-level authorities. The bill first passed by the Chamber of Deputies, which debates and ultimately votes on it. A bill that has been passed by the Chambers is then submitted to the Senate, where the process begins anew. The law must be approved by the government. A law must be signed by the head of the Chamber of Deputies, the Prime Minister and the President.
The President is elected every five years by the citizens, but he/she can't serve more than two terms in office in a row. The President represents the state abroad and concludes foreign treaties. He has also many duties in relation to the other bodies of government: appointment of all the judges, generals of the army, ambassadors and other officials. The President is also the commander-in-chief of the army. In the law-making process he can exercise the veto, which means not signing a bill within assigned 15days and returning it to the Parliament (where the voting starts all over again, but if it passes, it will ignore the requirement of President's signature). In relation to the judicial power, he can grant a pardon to a convicted person or declare an amnesty. His task is also to call a general election. He appoints the Prime Minister on whose suggestion he then appoints the other members of the government. The President is not responsible for his activities, cannot be charged with any crime, he can only prosecuted for high treason. Current President is Miloš Zeman.
The Government is composed of the premier, the vice-premiers and the ministers. Ministries, headed by ministers, enforce laws made by Parliament. Ministries of: Interior, Foreign Affairs, Defense, Industry, Commerce, Agriculture, Education, Justice, Transport, Health, Labor and Social Affairs, Culture and Finance.
The Judicial power is divided into a system of courts, starting with the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court and going down to the courts at all levels of regional government. Judge serve for an unlimited period of time, must have a good reputation and must be professional lawyer.
In the elections the citizens can choose from a variety of political parties (for example The Civil Democratic Party, The Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party, The Social Democratic Party, Green Party, The Czech-Moravian Communist Party, Top 09 and ANO movement) which are distinguished as- the left wing, moderate and right wing. The winning party can then form a coalition with other parties which then cooperate. These parties also retain the majority of seats in the Chamber of Deputies.
 

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