Březen 2018

Jak se připravuji k maturitě část 2.

31. března 2018 v 8:00 | Another |  Deník

Panika ?

Mám necelé dva měsíce na ústní maturitu a necelých 14 dní na první písemku. Většina lidí kolem mě je hrozně nervózních, jen já to prostě nějak necítím. Pořád si říkám, že to nějak dopadne. Co se týče témat, tak mám ready cca 25 témat z 60. Což není tak hrozný, ale stydím se za ty hrozné výsledky. Jsem docela zvědavá na to všechno.

Health and Healthy Lifestyle

30. března 2018 v 20:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

Health and Healthy Lifestyle

It is important to know at least some basics about healthy lifestyle. Everything starts with food. The right food can make your life much better, healthier. People should eat fresh fruit and vegetable, low fat diets, unrefined carbohydrates, and so on. It includes avoiding food that is bad for you like refined carbohydrates, fatty food, sugar, and alcohol and so on. People should also eat regularly, 5 times a day, small portions. Try to stay away from fast food. Also regular exercise is an important part of healthy lifestyle. Aerobic exercise is good for your heart and your body, yoga has a therapeutic affect and also helps to reduce your stress level and simple workout or running can clear your mind. Which brings me to another thing, people should be able to manage stress. Failure to manage stress effectively can harm your body and affect your relationships with others. Stress can also lead to alcohol or drug addiction. Also you can't be healthy if you're depress and unhappy, our body is controlled by the greatest computer, our brain, and it works the same like normal computer, you have to take care of it and clean it. Next important thing is sleep. People should sleep at least 7 hours. If you go without sleep for a period time, every area of your life will be ultimately affected. Also avoid smoking and drinking alcohol, of course completely forget about some drugs. These are some tips to stay away from illnesses. Some common illnesses are fever, flu, cough, cold or sore throat. Most of these illnesses can be cured in one or two weeks. But there are also many serious diseases; I can classify them into groups, Sexually transmitted diseases like AIDS, dangerous diseases like cancer, cancer can start in almost every part of the body, or some mental issues like schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. There are also stress related diseases like heart attack, stroke and other. Some of these diseases can be cured, but some can't. Every time you feel that something is wrong, or you just feel sick, go and see a doctor. When you are at the doctor's, the doctor asks about your problems. You have to always tell the doctor everything. During the regular checkups, the doctor listens to your heart and breath, measure the temperature and the blood pressure. And if something is wrong, the doctor gives us a prescription. There are some kinds of medicine which can be prescribed, for example pills, syrup, drops, injection and sometimes, if you're not sick, but you have some injury you can use plaster or bandage. You can get all of these in chemist or pharmacy, sometimes even id supermarkets. Vitamins can be bought even in drug stores.
People should also give a chance to alternative medicine. Not for curing their diseases but for prevention it is good. People should try herbal medicine, massage therapy, meditation, aromatherapy or reflexology. I would like to speak about meditation. Some people believe that meditation is only sitting on the ground, having your hand on your knees and having your eyes closed, but it is not like that. Some instrumental dancing or lying in bed is also a meditation. Yoga is also part of meditation. Even something like switching cold and warm baths, lying in snow and reading a book in quiet room is also a part of meditation.
As for what I do to stay fit, well it is quite interesting that I'm still alive and healthy. I eat what I want to eat, no matter how healthy or unhealthy it is. I exercise few days in a year. Only one thing that I think I do right is that I can manage stress quite good. I used to be much stressed, but recently I start with regular meditation and I'm calmer. I'm visiting doctor and dentist regularly. The problem is that I really don't like fruit or vegetable, I don't like exercising and I simply don't want to think about what I eat. I eat what my body asks for. And even though some people would say, that I'm eating only junk food, it is not true, sometimes I have something healthy. I would like to change my attitude to healthy lifestyle and one day I hope that I will be exercising regularly and eating more fruit and vegetable. Maybe reduce the amount of meat I'm eating. I would like to eat more regularly, because I must say that I'm eating once a day, I start in the morning and finish in the evening. I know I should eat less, but I really love food.

My Interest in Art and Mass Media

30. března 2018 v 9:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

My Interest in Art and Mass Media

I would like to start with Art. There are various kinds of art, for example Visual art like drawing, painting, sculpture or photography, Literature, Music, Performing art like dance, cinema, theatre, ballet or concerts, martial art and applied art like architecture or types of designs. People can enjoy art almost everywhere; even walk around the city can be full of art. Some typical places are galleries, museums, operas, cinemas, theatres or concert halls. In Prague we have National Museum situated on Wenceslas Square, National Gallery and National Theatre situated next to The Vltava River. As for London, there are many museums and galleries. National Museum, National Gallery and National Theatre are of course famous but I would like to speak about Science Museum or The Royal Albert's Hall. Anyways, there are many cultural places to visit in London. Famous places in New York are Metropolitan Opera, Carnegie Hall or Museum of Modern Art.
I live in a small village called Dubina and there isn't much cultural life. We have one Dvořáková Restaurant and there are some balls during winter and in summer there are some concerts. But I wouldn't say it is something special. In Karlovy Vary it is much better when it comes to cultural life; there are galleries, museums, cinemas and clubs. Also in Ostrov, there is Cultural house and new club called Experiment. It is special project of Hecht's brothers. They have this goal to bring young people back to Karlovy Vary region and to give them some cultural experience.
I personally love movies and series. I love series with just simple humor and real situations. For example sitcoms like The Middle, 2 Broke Girls or How I met your mother. But my all time favorite series are made pro CW productions; they make superhero series and historical series, including series like Arrow, Flash or Vikings. Another great series maker is Netflix; I love the show The House of Cards with Kevin Spacey as Frank Underwood. He's manipulating everybody to get some good post in American government.
As for Mass media, I think it is important to have at least some information about what's going on in the world. It is not difficult to use them; mostly the ability to read and listen is enough. There are few types of mass media. The oldest type is written media, like newspapers and magazines. British newspapers can be divided into broadsheets and tabloids. Broadsheets also called quality papers contain important and serious news, the example is The Times. Tabloids also called popular papers are full of stories about famous people, gossip, they have usually large headlines and many colors, and the example is The Mail. The main problem is that due to newspaper, forests are being cut down. But it has a history and it is better to see someone reading newspapers then just looking into their smart phones. Another type is the radio; you can do basically anything with a radio turn on. Even if you are driver, you can just listen to news on your favorite radio station. Another type is Television, I don't know how much trustworthy are news in television. I mean some of them can be trusted, like CT1, CT2 or CT24. But some are just full of commercial things; Nova and Prima are good examples. However, television can really damage your eyes. But these days more popular are social media. Those websites like Facebook, Youtube or Twitter are basically new virtual newspapers. I would like to say some pro's and con's in general. It is important to stay in touch; even the weather news can save your life. But the problem is that through media, people can be manipulated. It can create false expectations about the life.
My attitude to mass media is quite neutral. I don't search the news, but I hear or read something on daily basis. I like to listen to radio when I'm commuting to school, read some articles, when I'm bored. I don't really like social media, even though old people think that it is young people's life purpose. I don't like it, because it is annoyingly filled with hoaxes or fake news. The only reason why I have Facebook is messenger. It is cheaper that send 100 texts during one day. I would like to think positively about the future, but I'm not sure about how the future will look. I mean, these days everybody is testing Virtual reality; there are ideas that we will have a small computer in our eyes. Maybe it will be great bright future, but we'll see what the future brings us.

Sports and I

30. března 2018 v 3:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

Sports and I

I want to start with why people practice sports. People practice sports because they want to stay healthy and fit, they want to make some new friends or meet new people. Some people are using sports to find their life purpose. Sports are the source of recreation, or at least they can turn your grey stereotypical life into more active and colorful life. Also sports can show us how to be fairer and team player. Some sports can be done professionally and there is a lot of money going on. Some players cost their teams millions. There are some places where people practice sports, for example gyms, football field, basketball field, tennis court, athletics tracks, swimming pool, rugby pitch and also outside, in woods, on field or on their own gardens. It really depends on what type of sport you practice. We can divide sports into some categories and I would like to name some. Winter sports are skiing, snowboarding or biathlon. Summer sports are for example athletics, golf or volleyball. Outdoors sports are baseball, rugby or football and Indoors sports are table-tennis, gymnastics or chess. Social sports are all team games and single sports are chess, golf or gymnastics. We also divide sports by equipment we use, for example ball games. Also I could mention Water games, like water polo or simple swimming and Martial arts like karate and kung fu. There are also some sports events during the year, for example Wimbledon, World Championships, World Cup, NBA, and NHL.
Now the most famous sport event is The Olympic Games. They are held every four years, they have their summer and winter parts which change once every two years. Symbols of Olympic Games are Olympic Games flag (with five connected circles symbolizing each continent) and Olympic fire (which is lighted in Greek Olympia and moved to the city in which the Games are taking place). Winter Olympic Games were held in South Korea in Pchjongčchang, and they will be held in China in Peking in 2022. Summer Olympic Games were held in Brazil in Rio de Janeiro in 2016 and will be held in Japan in Tokyo in 2020. I usually don't watch Summer Olympic Games to be honest, there are too many disciplines, but I kind of like watching the Winter Olympic Games. I like watching biathlon, curling, figure skating, ice hockey, speed skating and short track speed skating. My favorite speed skater is Martina Sáblíková, I've been watching her success since I was ten years old. Also I like our new star, Ester Ledecká.
As for typical British sports I should mention Cricket, Golf, Badminton, Rugby, Football and Curling. When it comes to American sports, I can think of Snowboarding, American football, Skateboarding, Baseball, Rugby, Basketball, Motor racing and Ice Hockey (mostly in north). And Czech sports are Football, Ice hockey, Tennis and Volleyball.
My attitude to sports isn't all that great. When I was younger I tried many sports, I played football for two years, hockey for one year and I tried to do gymnastics, aerobic, street dance and so on. As for winter sports, I tried skiing and snowboarding and when I was younger I was playing in snow with my brother. We were sledging next to our house. Now I would like to do some sport, but I think I don't have time for it. Once a year, always in January, I workout, lose some weight and then I give up. It's my routine every year. But I can't say that I hate sports or something like that, I would like to practice some sport in the future. One of my favorite is swimming. I would like to have something like a routine and twice a week visit some swimming pool. I also like dancing a lot. That's something I'm trying to practice daily, but I usually have time only once a week.

My Home and My Family

29. března 2018 v 15:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

My Home and My Family

Firstly I would like to introduce my family. I have to divide my family into immediate family and extended family. When it comes to my immediate family, I would say it is as regular or normal as it can get. It consists of my parents and their two children, me and my brother. My father's name is Peter, he's 59 years old. He's bit too old for being dad, but he's also a grandfather already. The reason for that is that my dad used to have another family before. He had wife and two children, daughter Michaela and son Peter. But it wasn't working so he got divorced and few years after that started new family with my mum. However he's really vital for his age, he doesn't even have grey hair. As to his appearance, he's relatively fit looking guy. He has long black hair and surprisingly it looks good on him, he still gets compliments on how well he looks. The reason for his long hair is that since he was child, he was inspired by Indians, and during communism era, he had to cut his hair, so after revolution, he decided to let it grow. Not only his hair but also his face doesn't match his age. Everybody who tries to guess his age usually missed the actual age by making him 10 or 15 years younger than he is. As for his character, he's hard working and he's trying to learn something new every day. His day mostly consists of his work on postal service, his work at home and some documentary show. He's also smart when it comes to finances, he managed to never get the family in debt and always have plenty money saved if any disaster happens. He worked for 24 years as a driver for one brewery in Karlovy Vary, which included a lot of heavy lifting of all the barrels and crates full of beer. That's why he gained enormous muscle figure. However for last 9 years he works as a driver for postal services, which is basically the same but without the heavy lifting. As for hobbies, well his hobby is working. Around the house, watering garden, feeding animals, repairing anything that might be damaged, mowing the grass, we have quite huge land behind our house, so everything took a lot of his free time. Recently my brother showed him some superhero movies like Marvel and DC, and I think it became one of his hobbies as well. My mother's name is Martha, she's 47 years old. She's a bit heavier person due to some medical conditions. She has red hair, medium length. She was quite healthy most of her life, but in her 30's her hips and back started to hurt, nobody really knows why it happened, but due to that, doctors found out that she has osteoporoses. It was too late, she already had two surgeries and she's waiting for another. Even though she could be mad and hateful, she's really optimistic and funny person. She tried many jobs; she worked as a shop assistant, as art teacher in Kyselka, she tried to have her own grocery shop, but it wasn't working. Today she works in Security Company. And my brother Michael, he's 22 years old. It is easy to remember his age because he is three years and three days older than me. I must say that we are not very close. He lives in our house, but he's acting like some stranger. He's not talking to me and dad, only talks to mum, because they are both working for the same company. He is tall and he has muscular figure and dark brown hair. I don't know what to say about him, as I mentioned, we are not very close. I would say that he likes to play computer games a lot, sometimes about 20 hours in row. As for my extended family, it is quite big, because my father had three brothers, the oldest died few years ago and now he has two older brothers and my mum has two older brothers, one younger brother and one younger sister. Every single one of them have at least 2 children. I have many cousins and few of them I've never met.
As for our house, we live in medium sized detached house in small village in Dubina. Our family lives there for decades. The house is yellow which surprisingly isn't that bad how it sounds. I quite like living there, because we don't need to pay for water. I don't really know why, but I think it has something to do with Kyselka's Mattoni mineral water. As I mentioned before we have huge land behind our house and many apple trees, also my dad loves to produce his own food on our garden. That's quite good as well. As for my ideal home, I thing I would like to have also some detached house, maybe smaller, or some bungalow. I would like to have a dog and a cat, some chicken on the garden, for free eggs and also some quite place on the garden for my reading or working.

Current problems in society

28. března 2018 v 20:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

Current problems in society

There are many problems around the world. I would like to start with problems in Karlovy Vary region. The main problem is that people, especially young people, leave this region and start their careers somewhere else. It is because the average salary in Karlovy Vary region is lower than in the other regions. That is the reason why Karlovy Vary region is considered to be the poorest region in Czech Republic. Also there is one problem and that is no motorway to Prague. We have motorways in Karlovy Vary region, but none of them continues somewhere else, just to Germany. In this part of Czech Republic, some people would say that there is a problem with gypsies, but I would say, that the problem is not with gypsies but with drunken people, drug addicts and aggressive people in general.
As for problems in Czech Republics, I could go on and on for hours. The biggest problem is that most people in Czech Republic still live in past. Even though communism is over for few years now, people still like to do the same things like they used to. Corruption, smuggling and cheating is on daily bases. There is also lack of educated people, because many students leave the country after or during their time in school. Low level of salaries is another big problem; people would rather work in Germany or stay at home and take money from the republic.
I would like to start with problems in society and I'll divide them into some parts. First I'll start with problems between people. The biggest problem is intolerance. People just can't tolerate others, for example racism, homophobia or phobia of other sexual orientations or even vegans and vegetarians and so on. And the hate or intolerance is mutual. Another problem that I want to divide from intolerance, even though it is the same, is religious. These days it is a huge problem. In some Islamic countries, it is still normal that if you say that you don't believe in anything, they will execute you, no matter the age. Another group of problem is political problems, or political conflicts. These days I should mention the conflict between South Korea and United States of America. And the last and biggest group of problems is Environmental problems. The most debate is Global climate change. It is caused by the greenhouse effect-the Earth receives energy from the sun. Some is absorbed by the Earth and some is radiated back into space. But gases in the atmosphere absorb some of this energy. Much of these gases create a "heat blanket" around Earth. Due to factories and cars burning fossil fuels on daily basis, more of these gases (carbon dioxide) leaks into the atmosphere, increasing the amount of the greenhouse gases and warming up the planet. Another problem linked with gases in atmosphere is acid rain. It is one of the Europe and North America's most serious pollution problems. The gases and chemicals in are sent into the air by factories, they are carried for hundreds of miles by the wind. So they fall back to earth, but somewhere else. The acid rain kills fish, flowers and trees. It slowly destroys buildings as well. Another problem is deforestation; the rainforests are often called the lungs of the Earth, but people cut them down for palm oil or to make some space for farms. Another big problem is overpopulation; there are 7, 6 billion people on this planet. It is a problem because there is lack of food, or to be more correct, not everybody can get the food. But we have a solution for this problem; we need to educate people from countries in Africa or Asia, tell them about other choices, about protection from unwanted pregnancy.
My opinion to all this is, that people should really care more about our planet, about peace and about relationships. I think that the most important is to save this planet, even if we change our thinking and stop with wars and intolerance; we need to have a planet to live on. Last part it protection of environment. People should save water and energy, sort the rubbish and use public transport or riding a bike or walk.

Travelling

28. března 2018 v 8:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

Travelling

Travelling is a part of life of each of us. For example, if you don't live in a town where you work or go to school, you have to commute. Travelling could be also a hobby. Lots of young people like to travel through Europe or America or if they are rich around the world. They found new places, new culture, meet new people. A lot of people travel for their holiday for example to sea or to the mountains. Some people travel abroad to learn new language. It is a job for some people, for instance travel agents, managers, professional sportsmen, singers and so on. Some people travel far away from their home because of starting new life in a place where they can be free where nobody knows them and where they can be on their own. Some advantages of traveling are meeting new people, learning about new culture, people appreciate their home more. You realize how little you actually knew about the world, travelling also gives the opportunity to disconnect from our regular life, travelling with family or friends creates memories for a lifetime that strengthen the bonds we have. Disadvantages of travelling are smuggling, we can met bad people, get lost, be murdered, money can be stolen; in dangerous places it is better to have a guide, traveling spoils the nature. Always find some information about the place you want to visit.
There are many ways how to travel. I'll start with environmental friendly ways like travelling on foot, it is the cheapest and healthiest way to travel, it keeps you fit and improves your condition, but it is slow, only for short distances and it can be dangerous when you are alone. Another eco-friendly way to travel is by bike, it is also cheap, healthy, you can go everywhere and stop where you want, but it is slow, very dangerous, you can't have much luggage with you and you can get sweaty when you'd prefer not to, for example when you want to go to work. People can also travel by car. When you travel by car, you can stop whenever wherever, you are independent, and it's quick and comfortable. Some people may say that it is expensive at first, and it is, also you can be the best driver, but you never know about driving skills of other drivers. Travelling by bus is more eco-friendly then travelling by car, it is quite fast, cheap and it has special price for kids, students and old or disabled people, also you can meet new people, although these days it is not that often. Some disadvantages are that it is crowded, dirty, and uncomfortable. There is lack of space, no toilets, no privacy and you need to follow time table. The fastest way is travelling by plane, for long distances, less dangerous and more comfortable, but it can be expensive, there is very strict security. My favorite way to travel is by train, it is fast, cheap and more comfortable, It has more space, more privacy, sometimes sleeping and dining cars, toilets and it is less dangerous that bus. The biggest disadvantage is that trains have delays, not only few minutes, even hours.
When you travel abroad, for example on holiday, you need to have your ID, passport, visa, currency and some basic things like clothes, hygiene, including toothbrush, soap, towel and so on. People have many choices where to stay. It really depends on where you go. You can stay in hotel, hostels, Airbnb, caravan or campsite.
I'm not really fan of travelling, maybe because I have to commute to school every day. I live in small village and everything is quite far from me. I usually travel twice a year to Prague and couple times a year to Czech sight. When I was younger, about 4 years, I was in Croatia, but I don't remember anything. Four years ago I visited Italy with my classmates.

Eating Habits in English Speaking Countries in Comparison with Czech Habits

27. března 2018 v 20:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

Eating Habits in English Speaking Countries in Comparison with Czech Habits

In the world there are many kinds of meals or eating habits. Eating and cooking are an important part of our lives. As for Czech cuisine I should talk about roasted pork with dumplings and sauerkraut, sirloin with vegetable and cream sauce served with dumplings, whipped cream and cranberry jam or sauce. Another Czech type of dish is slice of meat; it can be pork, beef, chicken, or even fish. The slice of meat is triple coated (another Czech specialty, the coats are smooth flour, egg and bread scrums) and fried. Typical Czech drinks are beer, herbal liquors Becherovka and Fernet and as non-alcoholic drink I can think of Kofola, which is like Coca-cola but not that sweet. Czech people usually don't have breakfast together, because people usually wake up differently, lunch is usually being eaten in some cafeteria in school or work, but Czech people usually have dinner together, in front of TV.
British Cuisine has some typical dishes as well. One famous dish around the world is full breakfast including bacon, sausages, eggs and coffee or tea. Fish And Chip is often eaten like food to go or street food. Sunday roast is really unhealthy food, but I bet it's delicious. It consists of roast beef, roast potatoes, other vegetables, Yorkshire pudding, sausages, stuffing and gravy. Shepherd's pie is a meat pie with topping of mashed potatoes. Great Britain is famous for many various types of whisky; the best are Irish Whisky for example Jameson and Tullamore Dew, and Scotch Whisky Ballantine's or Red Label. Also British people drink a lot of tea. They have tea at 5 o'clock; usually drink is with milk or lemon, with biscuits.
As for American Cuisine, it is very various. Many people from Europe believe that Americans eat only Fast Food like McDonalds, KFC or Taco bell, but it is not a rule. One of the most famous American dishes is some kind of burger with fries and coleslaw. American taste palette is mostly sweet and their famous desert is Apple pie, it is dough filled with apples and caramel. Brownies, chocolate chips cookies, cheesecakes, and so on… These are few of the sweet dots on menu, when people in America come to a restaurant. As for beverages, the most famous is Coca-Cola, or at least that is what Americans prefer. American alcoholic drinks are Jack Daniels whisky, Jim Beam bourbon, Havana club rum and Bacardi rum. And since I'm talking about American cuisine, Mexican dishes are something that doesn't need to be introduced. Chili Con Carne is typical Mexican dish; it is meat, beans, corn, jalapenos, bell peppers, chili powder and some tortillas. Mexican alcoholic drink is Tequila.
As for some healthy eating habits, people should eat more vegetables and fruit, drink more water, cut the amount of sugar in their dishes and reduce fat filled dishes, like fast food in general. People should eat more often fish and completely forget about pork, which is full of fat. As for unhealthy eating habits, I think what most people do is that they ignore breakfast, visit fast food and drink soft drinks. Also even when they want to be healthy they buy those juices filled with sugar and that is completely useless.
As for myself, I usually have breakfast in the morning at about 6am; I have tea and some sweet pastry. Around 10 am I need snack; I have some crackers or yoghurt. At 2pm I have lunch. Lunch consists of 3 parts, part one is soup, like vegetable soup, potato soup, noodle soup, and so on. Part two is main dish; it is usually some meat with potatoes, rice or pasta. Part three is sweet dot, usually fruit. After that, at 5 pm I have second snack, unhealthy one, usually crisps or salted peanuts, or something like that. At 7 pm I have my first dinner, something smaller, like salami and bread or cheese and salami plate. My last meal is around 8pm, it is second dinner and I usually have some type of salad, usually cucumber salad with sour cream.
As for my favorite food, I really like not healthy food, because I won't lie, It is delicious due to that not healthy structure. Even though I don't like sugar that much, sometimes I can have a soft drink like Fanta. I don't like Coca-cola because I think that it is like pure sugar. My favorite not healthy food is pizza. I like pizza with almost every topping, like mushroom, fish, olives, pineapple and so on. As healthy food I like sushi, especially raw fish meat, I love salmon very much, avocado, shrimps and so on. Beverages I like can be also sorted in healthy and unhealthy. On one hand, I love homemade juices or yogurt or milky fruity drinks, on the other hand I need at least one a month Fanta or Kofola for the sugar, since I don't eat sweet and people need at least some sugar to be active. As for an alcoholic drinks, I'm not into beer, I hate it. But I like whisky, bourbons, liquors and some drinks like pinacolada, cuba libre, and so on. I would like to finish this topic with one sentence and that is, that I really love food and I consider myself as a foodie and some people eat to live and I live to eat.

Holidays and Festivals in English Speaking Countries in Comparison with Czech Habits

27. března 2018 v 8:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

Holidays and Festivals in English Speaking Countries in Comparison with Czech Habits

I would like to start with special holidays and festivals for each country and then about some different traditions when it comes to international holidays.
Holidays typical for United Kingdom are Saint Patrick's Day celebrated in Ireland on the 17th of March. Saint Patrick spread education and helped establish the Christian faith; symbols are green color and shamrock. Guy Fawkes Night celebrated on 5th of November. Guy Fawkes was a man that wanted to blow up the Houses of Parliament. People usually celebrate it with bonfires, fireworks and children wear Guy Fawkes masks and say "Penny for a Guy", which is asking for money or candies. The last one I would like to talk about is Poppy day or Remembrance Day is observed of 11th of November. It is the day of honor for all those who were killed during the World Wars. Main symbol is of course Poppy.
Typical holidays for United States of America are Martin Luther King's day celebrated on the third Monday in January. Martin Luther King pushed for racial equality in America. Memorial Day which is similar to Poppy Day, but it is celebrated on the last Monday in May. And most important day for all Americans is Independence Day, celebrated on 4th of July. It is a day when thirteen American colonies regarded themselves as new nation and Declaration of Independence was officially signed.
Czech holidays are a reminder of important days in our history, for example Day when the 2nd World War was ended of 8th of May, Remembrance of the coming of Christianity in Great Moravia-Cyril and Methodius on 5th of July, Remembrance day when master Jan Hus was burned on 6th of July, Day when Prince Wenceslas was murdered on 28th of September and Day when the Czechoslovakia was formed on 28th of October.
When it comes to Easter in United States, Christians are reminded of the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The symbol is an egg that symbolizes beginning of life. Easter is celebrated on the Sunday of following the fourth full moon after Christmas. When the date on which a holiday is celebrated changes from year to year as it is in this case, it is called a movable feast. About a week before Easter, people start decorating eggs. Usually people dye the eggs bright colors. The Easter bunny is a little like Santa Claus. He comes on Saturday night before Easter. He leaves the children a basket full of chocolates and other candies. He hides all the decorated eggs. Nobody ever saw him, because he always hops away quickly. On Sunday morning, all the eggs have been hidden and then it's time to look for them. Even people who don't go to church often go on Easter Sunday. Most people celebrate Easter with their families. After they return from church, and after all of the eggs have been found, it is time for Easter Dinner. In the United States, ham is a traditional Easter food. In the early days, meat was slaughtered in the fall. There was no refrigeration, and the fresh pork that wasn't consumed during the winter months before Lent was cured for spring. Easter in United Kingdom is pretty much the same as in the United States, only the traditional food is lamb. And Easter in Czech Republic is culminated on Monday. Young, live willow twigs are thought to bring health and youth to anyone who is whipped with them. A pomlázka (from pomladit which means make younger) is braided whip made from willow twigs. Men and boys walk around the neighborhood and use them to gently beat women and girls and say or sing Easter carols. As a reward they receive painted eggs and colored ribbon, adults are usually offered a shot of strong alcohol and kids get additional chocolate. Girls and women can pour water or perfume on the men and boys after the lunch hours. Traditional lunch is chicken with stuffing.
Halloween has interesting origin. It is believed to have started a long time ago, when November 1st was considered to be the first day of the year. On that day, called "All Hallow's Day" all of the souls of the people who had died during the year would be judged and go to heaven or hell. On the night before, October 31st, All Hallow's Evening could be called All Hallow's Even and that got shortened to Hallow's E'en, which became the word Halloween. These souls had a chance to return to the living one last time and say goodbye. Many people were afraid that the dead souls might be angry at them, so they started to leave fruit, candy and other treats out as a kind of bribe. They were afraid that if they didn't the spirits might haunt the town forever, so some of the bravest would make lanterns out of hollow pumpkins and walk through the town out of the graveyard, hoping to lead the spirits back to their resting places. Sometimes they carved frightening faces in the pumpkins, or dressed up as ghosts themselves, so that the spirits would be more likely to follow them. Today in United States on Halloween especially children dress up in costumes. Some people at least put a hollow pumpkin (also known as Jack O'Lantern) in front of the house. Children go through the neighborhood in costumes, knock on doors and say "Trick or Treat". If the people in the house don't give them candy, then the children do something bad to them, a prank of some sorts, like put soap on their windows, or smash their pumpkin and sometimes even worse things. In United Kingdom this holiday is usually called All Soul's Day. Families visit cemeteries where they lay candles and flowers. The holiday is celebrated on the first of November as well. Most people in UK don't celebrate in any other way; however there are some small communities that celebrate Halloween the same way it is in the United States. Halloween in Czech is basically the same like in United Kingdom, but younger people like to some Halloween parties with costumes and so on.
Christmas in United States is celebrated on Christmas Day, December 25th. Christmas is a religious holiday, but many people who are not Christian celebrate the secular aspect of Christmas gift-giving. People give Christmas gifts to their family, friends and coworkers. Christmas is also a time then a lot of people give money and gifts to charities. Many churches and charities give out special meals for the poor and homeless, so that on this special holiday, no one needs to be hungry or alone. Children open their gifts in the morning of Christmas day and believe Santa Claus gave it to them. They often leave cookies and glass of milk for Santa to eat when he's delivering the gifts in the night. Christmas in UK is similar to Christmas in USA, only food and few traditions are different. Christmas dinner consists of roast turkey, roast potatoes, Brussels sprouts and Christmas pudding, Christmas cake and mince pie. Christmas in Czech is followed up with home-made sweets, decorating tree, singing carols and sometimes not eating whole day to increase their appetite for Christmas Dinner or in case of kids to see the golden pig. Christmas dinner consists of Fried cart with potato salad and fish soup. People open their presents after dinner.

Australia and New Zealand

26. března 2018 v 20:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

Australia and New Zealand

I should start with Australia or officially Commonwealth of Australia. Australia is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It's located in south-east Asia. It's surrounded by the Indian Ocean in west and south and the Pacific (Coral and Tasman Seas) in the east. Closest neighboring countries include Indonesia, Papua New Guinea in the north and Solomons, Fiji and New Zealand in the east. Its area is around 8 million square kilometers. Australia is the smallest, and the youngest continent, but it's also sixth largest country. Capital city is Canberra and some large cities are Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. Australia doesn't have official language, but the national language is of course English. Currency is called Australian dollar. Australian flag has the flag known as Union Jack in the upper quarter, a large seven-pointed star (representing six states of Australia and one territory) and five smaller stars representing the constellation of the Southern Cross.
As I mentioned before, it is the smallest continent in the world but also the sixth largest country by total area. It's often called the "Island Continent" and sometimes even considered the world's largest island. Part of its geography is the Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef, lies short distance off the north-east coast and extend for over 2000 kilometers. Another interesting part of Australian geography would be Mount Augustus, which is claimed to be world's largest monolith (geological feature consisting of a single massive stone or rock, such as some mountains). Mount Kosciuszko on the Great Dividing Range is the highest mountain on the Australian mainland. Even taller are Mawson Peak, Mount McClintock and Mount Menzies on some of the islands surrounding Australia. The longest river is the Murray River. There are three big lakes Lake Eyre, Lake Torrens and Lake Gairdner. The Australian climate varies from warm to subtropical. It's also significantly influenced by ocean currents. Because of Australia's location it has summer when we have winter and vice versa.
The tropical forests in the north and north-east are displaced by savannah or grassland. The south-east is covered with forests of eucalyptus and other evergreen trees. The animals of Australia are numerous and some of them like the kangaroo, koala bear, dingo, platypus, Tasmanian devil or barking lizards can't be found elsewhere, because of that, these animals are called endemic. Many people outside of Australia are afraid of the animals that live there. At first it sounded like a joke to me, but then I did some research myself and I came to the same conclusion. For example, Australia alone is home to 7 out of 10 most poisonous snakes in the world. It has also the largest and most dangerous spiders, which is the deciding factor of whether I should visit Australia or not if I get the chance. And when you read how even seemingly non-dangerous animals like kangaroos kill a person with a single kick, it's kind of a warning to never get even close to this country.
The population of Australia is some 24 million. The density is one of the lowest in the world. People live in urban areas mainly along the south-east coast. Deserts and the tropical northern part are practically uninhabited. Inhabitants are mainly of British origin, the rest is made by other European ethnic groups and by aborigines. Australian English and aboriginal languages are spoken here. Australia is a British dominion. It has democratic, federal system and the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II represented by the governor-General (Sir Peter Cosgrove). The head of government is the Prime Minister (Malcolm Turnbull) and the Cabinet. It has the two typical legislative houses, Senate and House of Commons.
As for some interesting places, I should speak about the Sydney Opera House which is a huge breathtaking building, shaped like huge shells or billowing sails. Sydney Harbour Bridge along with the Opera House, this bridge is one of Australia's most famous icons. Largest steel arch bridge in the world. Great Barrier Reef as I mentioned before, visible from outer space, one of the largest living structures on the planet. Fraser Island is the largest sand island in the world. The Pass at Byron Bay is favorite place for surfing.
New Zealand is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses: North Island (famous for its hot springs, geysers and watering places), South Island (known for High Mountains and the Southern Alps) and numerous smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1500 kilometers east of Australia across the Tasman Sea. Capital city is Wellington and other big cities are Manukau, Christchurch and Auckland. Currency is called New Zealand dollar, population is about 4.6 million people and flag is similar to Australian flag-Union jack in upper quarter, a blue ensign with the Southern cross of four white-edged red five-pointed stars (represent the asterism within the constellation of Crux). Official language is English, but some people still speak Maori-which is the language of Polynesian group who settled here in 14th century until the arrival of British colony. New Zealand has a parliamentary system where the head of state is again Queen Elizabeth II represented by the Governor-General (Patsy Reddy). The head of government is the Prime Minister (Jacinda Ardern). It has only one legislative chamber and that's the Houses of Representatives.
As for some interesting places, Sky Tower is observation and telecommunications tower in Auckland. Tallest free-standing structure in Southern Hemisphere. Rotorua is geothermal area known for beautiful natural surroundings, geysers, boiling pools, hot springs, boiling mud and lakes.
Howeever one of the main attraction of New Zealand are the filming locations of The Lord Of The Rings trilogy and The Hobbit trilogy. These 6 movies are one of the highest grossing movies of all time, which shows just how popular they were ans are tothis day. The movies are jokingly called "The most expensive New Zealand travelling commercial", because of two reasons- first would be that all thee scenery shots in those movies, whether it is the vast meadows or large mountains or lakes, all those were filmed in New Zealand. Second reason is that the filming crew actually made few New Zealand travelling agency commercials in order to promote both New Zealand and the movies themselves. It's no surprise that lot of the filming locations and set were made to be permanent. For example the fictional village called The Shire or on larger scale the Hobbiton is actually build and remains popular place to visit. It's located near the Matamata town.

Canada

26. března 2018 v 8:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

Canada

Canada occupies the whole of the northern part of North America, except Alaska and many islands, for example Baffin Island, Victoria Island and Prince of Wales Island. It is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Canada is the second largest country in the world, after Russia and its area is about 10 million square kilometers. It borders with the USA and this border is the longest undefended border in the world. Despite its big size, Canada has a small population of about 33 million people.
Canada is constitutional monarchy. The monarch of the UK is the official head of state (Queen Elizabeth II), but has little influence on Canadian politics and is represented by the Governor General, whole role is also symbolic. The political system is based on the British system, there are two chambers: the House of Common and the Senate. The everyday running of the country is carried out by the prime minister and his cabinet.
The country is divided into 3 territories and ten provinces, for example Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario and so on. The capital city is Ottawa, it's located on the borders of Ontario and Quebec and its population is about the same as Prague. The biggest cities are Torronto and Montreal. Other important cities are Vencouver, Calgary and Edmonton, which are famous for their hockey clubs. As to the National flag of Canada, it's known as the Maple Leaf and it's basically a vertical bicolor three band of red, white and red with a red maple leaf in the centre. Canada is English speaking country with two official languages, English and French. The majority of French speaking Canadians live in the province of Quebec, this province even has French political system, unlike the other provinces, which are using the British political system. Canada is known for its variety of animals including wolves, bears, arctic foxes, polar bears, mooses, seals, whales, walruses and of course I can't forget beavers, because beaver is the national animal. National emblem is maple leaf and currency is Canadian dollar. Maple sap is gathered every spring from the maple trees for maple syrup. Canada is also known for its Mounties or mounted police. They wear a red uniform and ride on horseback. Public education is free until the end of secondary school. Universities are partly founded by the government, but students also pay tuition fees.
In Canada there are mostly plains with mountains in the west and lowlands in the south-east. Mount Logan is the highest peak of Canada. Western Canada has many volcanoes and is part of pacific ring of fire, a system of volcanoes found around the margins of the Pacific Ocean. Very important area for agriculture, industry and transport in the Great Lakes System (Lake Ontario, Superior, Michigan, Huron and Erie). The longest river is the river Mackenzie and the most important river is the Saint Lawrence River, because it connects the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean, so it is important for transport and it forms part of the boundary between Canada and the USA. Climate varies because of the large size of the country. It's arctic in the north and mild in the south.
The population of Canada consists mostly of Europeans, 15% Asians and up to 5% of Aboriginal, which are basically the first people who lived there before the colonization. Those include some of the Indians and also Inuits, those are a group of indigenous people inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska. People often call them Escymoes, but they don't like being called that way. Because of the climate, most of people live in the south of Canada.
Atlantic Canada possesses vast offshore deposits of natural gas and Alberta hosts large oil and gas resources. As I mentioned, half of the country is covered in green forests, so Canada also produces a lot of wood.
As for some interesting places, the Whistler resort is the largest and most famous alpine ski destination in North America thanks to a couple of spectacular mountains called Whistler and Blackcomb. Niagara Falls is a series of three waterfalls situated on the border of Canada's Ontario and the United States's New York. Although it is often called the Honeymoon capital of the world. Quebec city may be the capital of the Quebec province in eastern Canada, but its French heritage, architecture and language make it appear more like a charming European village. Another interesting place is Banff National Park located in the province of Alberta, the Banff National Park is not only Canada's first national park, but also one of the nation's largest and most visited national parks. The park's breathtaking scenery and wildlife draw many tourists every year. One of Canada's most unique attractions in the polar bear migration that sees these beautiful creatures make their way from land out into the ice in Hudson Bay, near the town of Churchill in Northern Manitoba. This small community opens itself up to tourists each fall. Tours take visitors out in tundra buggies with caged windows for close encounters with the polar bears. The prime viewing time occurs in October or November while the bears are waiting for the water to freeze before heading out onto the ice.

American Literature and My favorite American Writer

23. března 2018 v 8:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

American Literature and My favorite American Writer

There are many different genres of literature. Generally we divide literature into three groups: poetry, prose and drama. I personally love reading, but I don't have much time for reading. I prefer prose, specifically some real stories or some mysterious novels. My favorite American author is Francis Scott Fitzgerald.
Francis Scott Fitzgerald was born on 24th of September 1896 and died on 21st of December 1940. He was an American writer whose works illustrate the Jazz Age. While he achieved limited success in his lifetime, he is now widely regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century. Fitzgerald is considered a member of the "Lost Generation" of the 1920s. He studied in New Jersey, where he found out more about literature. Then he continued at Princeton. After his school finished, he was the voice of young generation against adults. In 1970 he left school and join the army, but he was so scared of dying. Due to that, he wrote a book called The Romantic Egoist. In 1920 he got married. His wife was Zelda Fitzgerald and they were considered as iconic couple of The Golden 20s. After few years, his wife had medical issues and she was diagnosed as a schizophrenic. Fitzgerald paid her some treatments in sanatorium, so he was short of money. Fitzgerald started to work as a Hollywood scenarist. He died at the age of 44, during his life he had two heart attacks, first was dangerous, but he survived and doctors told him to stay about of stress situations, but he didn't listen and stayed at his stressful job. But the second heart attack was fatal. That was his life in short, and now some of his books. He was prosaic writer; he wrote few novels including This Side of Paradise (where he wrote about his time on Princeton), Beautiful and Damned (where he wrote about young people hungry for money), Tender Is the Night (That is about a woman and her psychiatrist) and one unfinished The Last Tycoon. Some Novellas like The Diamond as big as the Ritz, May Day and The Rich Boy. And I have to mention Short story collections like Flappers and Philosophers and Tales of the Jazz Age.
I would like to talk about one book I personally love and I think this book can change your life, it is a novel called The Great Gatsby. It is a story told from a view of one character called Nick Carraway, he moved to Long Island on West Egg, in a small house next to Gatsby's Mansion. His cousin Daisy lived with her husband on East Egg. Nick was enjoying his new life and after few days he got a letter from Mr. Gatsby with invitation to his parties. He went there and met Gatsby, the party was glorious, but Gatsby wanted to get Nick closer and get closer to Daisy, because later Nick found out that Gatsby and Daisy were lovers before and maybe were in love with each other the whole time. Daisy started visiting Gatsby and using Nick as a cover. Daisy cheated on Tom with Gatsby, and Tom cheated on Daisy with a woman called Myrtle. Tom found out about Daisy and Gatsby, he got mad, because man can cheat but woman should never cheat on her husband. One day, they traveled to city and Tom while he was driving Gatsby's car, he run over his lover by accident. After few hours they went back. Myrtle had also a husband, but desperate one; he wanted to revenge her death. When he saw Gatsby in the same car that run over his wife, he decided to kill Gatsby and himself, and that's what he did. Nick tried to make a great funeral for such a great man like Gatsby, but even though people loved all the parties, alcohol, drugs, food and dancers, no one really wanted to be close with Gatsby. Only Nick and Gatsby's father showed up at the funeral. During the story with Daisy and Gatsby, Nick also found a woman he loved, Jordan Baker a professional golfer and very sophisticated woman. But at the very end, Nick decided to end his relationship.
And one of his famous short stories I would like to talk about The Curious Case of Benjamin Button. It is about a man that was born old and died like a baby. His life is completely reversed.

The United States of America

22. března 2018 v 8:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

The United States of America

The USA is situated in southern part of North America. Its neighbors are Canada on north, Mexico on south and the Confederation of Independent States in Alaska. It covers the area of about 9, 4 million square kilometer. The United States of America has 50 states. 48 states are situated in the southern part of North America, Alaska in the North and Hawaii in the Mid-Pacific. Washington DC is the capital city. Some other big cities are New York (the city that never sleeps), Houston (NASA centre), Chicago (known as a mafia centre or drug dealing centre from history), Los Angeles (there is the biggest concentration of celebrities), and so on. On 4th of July is the National Independence Day. National emblem is bald eagle, anthem is The Star Spangled Banner and favorite sports are American Football, Basketball and Baseball. And I should talk about American flag. American flag is made of thirteen horizontal stripes alternating red and white (representing the thirteen British colonies that declare independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain), in the canton, 50 white stars of alternating numbers of six and five per row on a blue field (representing of 50 states). Central plains are bounded by the Rocky Mountains and the Coastal Mountains in the west, the Appalachian Mountains in the east and alluvial plains around the Gulf of Mexico. The highest mountain in the USA is Mount McKinley in the Alaska Range. The largest rivers are the Mississippi and the Missouri. The border with Canada is its central part made by the Great Lakes region. The Great Lakes are Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario. Between Erie and Ontario are all over the World known Niagara Falls. The US with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types.
The population is about 320 million and only one percent is a group of Native Americans, or American Indians.
There are 58 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests and wilderness areas. Altogether, the government owns about 28% of the country's land area. Most of this is protected, though some is leased for oil and gas drilling, mining, logging or cattle ranching. There are many national parks in USA, such as Yellowstone national park, Rocky Mountain national park, Grand Canyon national park and so on.
Political system in US is quite easy to understand. It's laid out in its constitution. The government is divided into three branches- the executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is made up of the president (Donald Trump) and his cabinet or advisors. The legislative branch is the section that makes laws. It is made up of two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives. Together they form the Congress. The judicial branch is the federal court system, which enforces and defines the laws made by Congress. The highest court in the country is called the Supreme Court.
And as for the places of interest, the USA is a huge country, so there in plenty of things to see. However because of its young history, there aren't many historical buildings there. Nonetheless here are some places of interest: Golden Gate Bridge is suspension bridge which is connecting San Francisco and Marin Country. The red-orange color was specifically chosen to make the bridge more visible through the thick fog that often shrouds the bridge. White House is in Washington D.C. and it is official residence and office of the president of USA. Lincoln's Memorial is an American national monument built to honor the 16th president of USA, Abraham Lincoln. It is located on the western end of national mall in Washington D.C., across from Washington monument, which is an obelisk, built to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and the first American President. I should also mention Empire State Building, which is famous skyscraper in Manhattan connected with the fictional character of King Kong, Grand Canyon in northern Arizona, and Carved over several million years by the Colorado River; it attains a depth of 1.6 kilometer. As I also mentioned Niagara Falls, it is made of three different falls: American, Bridal Veil and Horseshoe. One famous city is Las Vegas, one can say it's a gambling mecca of the world, also often called never sleeping city. This brings us to another city that never sleeps, New York. Next to New York lays the Liberty Island with its colossal neoclassical sculpture, the Statue of Liberty.

Czech, British and American School System

21. března 2018 v 8:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

Czech, British and American School System

School attendance in the Czech Republic is compulsory from the age of 6 to 15. Most children attend state school, but there are also newly established private and church schools. Education at state schools up to 18 is free of charge but students at secondary school must pay for their textbooks. Children don't wear uniforms. The school year is divided into two terms. The average number of lessons at a secondary school is about 30 a week. School usually starts at 8am and ends at 2pm. Pupils and students are evaluated by marks from 1 to 5. Each term students get their school report. Education in our country includes these stages: Pre-school, Primary school, Secondary school and Tertiary school. Pre-school education is provided by creches for children up to three years and kindergarten for children from 3 to 6 years. At 6 children start to go to primary schools and they stay there until 15. Then they transfer to secondary school. They can choose among a variety of secondary schools: grammar schools-which prepare students for university, special schools-which include technical colleges, specialized in building, chemistry, engineering and business, and vocation schools-which are training would-be workers for practical job. Secondary education lasts for four years. At grammar school and specialized schools it is finished with a school-leaving examination which is required by all universities and colleges. Tertiary education lasts between 4 to 6 years. Our oldest university is Charles University in Prague, founded by Charles IV in 1348. Other notable universities are Masaryk University in Brno, Palacký University in Olomouc and Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem. The students study 3 years for Bachelor's Degree or for 4 and 5 years for Master's Degree. Medicine takes about 6 years.
Education in the United Kingdom is quite different. At the age of 3 and 4 children receive nursery education in kindergartens. All children and young people between ages of 5 and 16 must get full-time education. State schools work from Monday to Friday from 9am to 3 or 4pm. Primary schools for ages 5 to 11, divided into infant school (from 5 to 7) and junior school (from 7 to 11). In infant school the children learn how to read, write and the basic of arithmetic. In junior school they study history, geography, mathematics, science, English and in some schools also a foreign language. Physical education is usually given twice a week. Secondary schools are comprehensive schools or grammar schools. It is for ages over 11. Subjects taught at schools are given by the national curriculum: English, Mathematics, Science, Technology, History, Geography, Music, Art, PE, foreign language (at the age 11 to 16) and optional religious education or technical and vocational education. At the age of 7, 11, 14 and 16 assessments take place how the child is doing. The principal examination at about the age of 16 is the General Certificate of Secondary Education. Advanced level of GCSE gives students possibility to study more subjects and these exams taken at 18 are the standard for entrance to university. Those who do not study at universities can be trained in nursing, law, banking, accountancy or in manufacturing or service industry. About 7% of British people attend independent or private schools. Some of these are boarding schools, which mean that the pupils live there and only go home for holidays. Independent schools are very expensive but the government provides funds for very clever children from poorer families if their parents wish to send them to a private school. The stages in these schools are different, pre-preparatory schools from the age of 5 to 8, preparatory schools from the age of 8 to 13, public or other independent schools from 13 to 18. The pupils must pass a special exam (Common Entrance Exam) to attend these very exclusive schools. As for universities, there are 35 in England, 8 in Scotland, 2 in Northern Ireland and 4 in Wales.
In the USA there is not a national system of education. All states require young people to attend the school. The age limits vary 7 to 16, 6 to 18. Every child gets minimum 13 years of education. In elementary schools pupils can learn mathematics, language arts like reading, grammar, composition, science, history, geography, music, PE, computer courses and second language. Secondary or high school is usually divided into junior (from 1 to 14) and senior high school- They get a high school diploma. Most schools offer English, Mathematics, Science, Social studies and PE along with foreign language. The system of higher education consists of following institutions: The University, The technical training institution and the two year or community college. Some famous universities are Harvard, Yale and Princeton.
I started my education at the age of 3. I was attending kindergarten from 3 to 6, from 6 to 15 primary school in Kyselka and after that I started to attend grammar school in Ostrov.

British and Irish Literature and My favorite British Writer

20. března 2018 v 8:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

British and Irish Literature and My favorite British Writer

Literature is almost always influenced by historical, political or social features of the period. As time went by, literature reflected thy opinions and ideal people had and the situations they were in, for example: war, injustice, lack of opportunities and uncertain future. These and many more concepts are regular themes appearing in English as well as American fiction. British literature throughout the years was specifically influenced for example by The Anglo-Saxons invasion from 4th to 11th from witch Beowulf was written (the hero is actually Danish and might have been composed in Denmark, the Netherlands of England, depending on which scholar you believe). The Norman invasion in 11th century, the Black Death in 14th century, the Elizabethan era from 16th century to 17th century, William Shakespeare writes his plays and poems in this time period, often called the golden age of poetry, The King James Bible is published as a first English translation. Early novels in 18th century such as Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe, Gulliver's Travels marks the golden age of satire. And of course both World Wars.
There are many different genres of literature. Generally we divide literature into three groups, poetry, prose and drama. I personally love reading, but I don't have much time for reading. I prefer prose, specifically some real stories or some mysterious novels. One of my favorite authors is Oscar Wilde.
Oscar Wilde was born on 16th of October 1854 in Dublin and died on 30th of November 1900 in Paris at the age of 46. He was and Irish working in England, playwright, poet, novelist and belletrist. He is best remembered for his epigrams and plays, his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, as well as the circumstances of his imprisonment and early death. I was good student at his youth. He studied classic philology in Dublin and Oxford, where he wrote his first poems and started with his decadent thinking. His life motto was "Born to be Wild", and he was wild. Wilde wanted to shock everybody in Victorian London and it wasn't that hard for him, because he was more into men than into women. Although he was married and had two sons, Cyril and Vyvyan, he had a relationship with Alfred Douglas. Alfred's father, the Marquees of Queensberry, wasn't happy about it and on the premiere of Oscar's plays "The importance of being Earnest" he tried to cause scandal. Wilde tried to prosecute Alfred's father, but Wilde lost and was putted in jail for two years. After he left prison, he changed his name to Sebastian Melmoth and he travelled through Europe. After a while Wilde stayed in Paris, broke and lonely, his career was ruined. He developed meningitis and died in Paris in hotel. He might be dead, but his legacy is still here and now I would like to talk out that. His poems weren't that popular at first, he wrote Poems and The Balad of Reading goal, with his own epitaph. He was more famous for his trivial comedies, including A Woman of no Importance, An Ideal Husband and The importance of being earnest. As for his short prosaic stories I should name: The Canterville Ghost, Happy prince and other stories, Lord Arthur Saville's crime and other stories, and A House of Pomegranates. But I would like to talk about one novel he wrote, The Picture of Dorian Gray. The book is about a young handsome man called Dorian Gray. His friend and painter Basil Hallward was so amazed by his beauty and did a portrait of him. Dorian was so pleased about the portrait. Basil's friend Henry said few things and Dorian realized that he won't stay young and handsome like the portrait. He wished he'd never go old. And his wish came true, everything he did was shown only on his portrait and he still looked young and handsome. His life was wild, full of alcohol, drugs, women and sometimes men. After almost twenty years of his wild life, he met his old friend Henry. Henry looked old but Dorian was still the same. Henry wanted to know why and one day he followed Dorian into his always locked library where he saw the portrait. The man in the portrait was Dorian, but not that handsome, he was old, he looked hideous. Dorian was so tired and scared, so he decided to grab a knife and stab himself in the portrait. In the library was destroyed portrait with young and handsome Dorian and an old man laying on the ground.
The story was inspired by many other books, for example Faus or Hamlet, where the main plot is how much can your selfishness turn you into monster or devil.
Decadent movement touched many authors, some best known are Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud, Paul Verlaine and in Czech Republic Karel Hlaváček.

London

19. března 2018 v 8:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

London

London, the capital of United Kingdom and Commonwealth is situated in the southern part of England. It lies on the river Thames, that's why it is known for having plenty of bridges. It covers are of 1,572 km2 and has around 8.5 million inhabitants. It is one of the largest cities in the world. London is one of the world's most important financial and cultural centers. It is the seat of Monarch, Parliament and the Government. London is the centre of cultural, political and social activities. Tourists come here at all seasons of the year to visit the monuments, museums, galleries and also theaters. London can be divided into four main parts: the City of London is the oldest part, but also a very small part. It's a business, financial and economic centre. There are a lot of banks, such as the Bank of England, government offices and also known London Struck Exchange. The City of Westminster is known as the centre of political and administrative life of Great Britain. It's also known as historical centre. West End is the shopping and entertainment centre with many shops, theaters, cinemas and clubs. East End used to be poor dockland area, but it's being renovated and now it's rapidly developing area.
London transport is one of high quality. It's famous for its red double-decker buses, though now they ride in the historical parts only. Another alternative would be London's underground, often called the Tube, which is the quickest and easiest way to get around central London. Taxis are a very popular means of transport in London. You can also travel by river buses. There are two airports in London-Heathrow and Gatwick.
Now I should speak about some places of interest, I would start with the tower bridge, which is a bridge with two towers at each end. There are many exhibitions in the towers. The bridge is opening in the middle to allow tall ships through. The Tower of London was once a royal palace, then prison, and even a royal zoo. Nowadays is a museum and famous for the Bloody Tower, Traitor's Gate, the ravens, Crown Jewels that are kept there, the Armories and the Yeoman Warders called Beefeaters. Saint Paul's Cathedral is one of the largest cathedrals in the world. In the 1981 Charles and Diana were married there. After climbing 311 steps, you have a marvelous view from top of the monument. The Houses of Parliament is located on the left bank of the river Thames and it is home of British Government. It is divided into two parts House of Commons and House of Lords, it has about one thousand rooms and three kilometers of corridor. Big Ben is the bell of the clock tower of the Houses of Parliament. It was made and called after Sir Benjamin Hall, one of the ministers, whom did people call Big Ben. Westminster Abbey is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the city of Westminster. Many English Kings and Queens have been crowned there and buried there. Buckingham palace is the London home of the Queen. Since 1993 parts of the palace have been opened to public, including the Queen's picture gallery. Downing Street 10 has been the official residence of the Prime Minister since 1715. The London Eye is the giant Ferris wheel on the south bank of the river Thames. It is also known as the Millennium wheel. Trafalgar Square is a public square in the city of Westminster, built around the area formally known as Charring Cross. It is named after the Battle of Trafalgar, a British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars with France and Spain. The square has been used for community gathering and political demonstrations, annual celebrations on New Year's Eve. The National Gallery is in Trafalgar square. It houses paintings by nearly all the great European artists and a large collection of British paintings and sculptures. The British Museum is one of the largest museums in the world. It houses the biggest collection of all kinds of animals and minerals and rocks. There is a collection of fine and applied arts of all countries, periods and styles. The British Museum's library is the largest in the world. Kew Gardens are the Royal Botanical Gardens with the largest collection of living plants in the world. Sherlock Holmes Museum is a museum of the famous fictional detective who appears in stories written by Sir Doyle. The museum is located at 221 Baker Street. And if you are looking for cinemas and theaters, Soho is the right place for that. Some other places are for example Royal Albert Hall, Science Museum, etc.
There are many parks and open spaces in London. Green space consists of eight Royal Parks. The largest parks in the center are of London are three of the eight Royal parks, namely Hyde Park and its neighbor Kensington Gardens in the west and Regent's Park to the north. Hyde Park in particular is popular for sports and sometimes hosts open-air concerts. Regent's Park contains London Zoo, the world's oldest scientific zoo, and is near the tourist attraction of Madame Tussaud's Wax Museum.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the British System of Government

16. března 2018 v 8:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the British System of Government

The official name of this country is The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is situated on the British Isles, which lie off the north-west coast of Europe. It consists of two large islands (Great Britain and Ireland) and about 5 000 smaller ones (E.g. the Isle of Wight, the Isle of Scilly, the Isle of Man, Anglesey, the Hebrides, the Orkneys, the Shetlands and the Channel Islands). Its neighbors are Ireland to west and France to south-east. It covers the area of 245 000 square kilometers. We can get there either by air or by ferry (or by faster hovercraft) from Calais to Dover across the Strait of Dover, which is the shortest way. We can get there also through the tunnel under the English Channel. The Great Britain includes four countries: England with its capital London, which is also a capital of United Kingdom, Scotland with Edinburgh, Wales with Cardiff and Northern Ireland with Belfast. Other big cities include Cambridge, Oxford, Winchester, Plymouth, Manchester and Liverpool. Population is over 60 million people. Official language is of course English with other recognized regional languages such as Welsh, Irish, Cornish or Scottish Gaelic. National anthem is God Save the Queen, currency is Pound Sterling. Flag is known as Union Jack.
England accounts for just over half of the total area of the United Kingdom. Most of the country consists of lowland terrain, with mountainous terrain north-west of the Tees-Exe line; including the Cumbrian Mountains of the Lake District, the Pennines and limestone hills of the Peak District, Exmoor and Dartmoor. England's highest mountain is Scafell Pike (978 meters) in the Lake District. Its principal rivers are the Severn, Thames, Humber, Tees, Tyne, Tweed, Avon, Exe and Mersey.
Scotland accounts for just under a third of the total area of the United Kingdom and including nearly eight hundred islands, predominantly west and north of the mainland; notably the Hebrides, Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands. The topography of Scotland is distinguished by the Highland Boundary Fault- a geological rock fracture- which traverses Scotland from Arran in the west to Stonehaven in the east. The more rugged Highland region contains the majority of Scotland's mountains land, including Ben Nevis which at 1,343 meters is the highest point in the British Isles. Lowland areas-especially the narrow waist of land between the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth known as the Central Belt-are flatter and home to most of the population include Glasgow, Scotland's largest city, and Edinburgh, its capital and political centre.
Wales accounts for less than a tenth of the total area of United Kingdom. Wales is mostly mountainous, though South Wales is the less mountainous than North and mid Wales. The main population and industrial areas are in South Wales, consisting of the coastal cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, and the South Wales Valleys to their north. The highest mountains in Wales are in Snowdonia and include Snowdon which at 1085 is the highest peak in Wales.
Northern Ireland separated from Great Britain by the Irish Sea and North Channel is mostly hilly. It includes Lough Neagh which is the largest lake in the British Isles by area.
The United Kingdom has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round. But there are many interesting places, including Brighton (which lies on the southern coast of England and it is famous seaside for holidaymakers), Salisbury Plains (famous for a place called Stonehenge. These are giant stones in a circle. They are assumed to be 3000 years old), Loch Ness (most famous lake in the Highland region by fame about Loch Ness monster), Lake District (there is beautiful scenery and nature), and many others.
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. Power is represented by a Monarch and Parliament. The present Monarch is the Queen Elizabeth II. She had four descendants- Charles, Andrew, Edward and Anne. The heir of the throne is William who is Prince Charles's and Lady Diana's son because there were some scandals about Charles.
Parliament has two chambers, The House of Lords and the House of Commons. The first one contains more than 1000 members but only 250 of them take an active part in the work. The house of Commons contains 650 elected members. They are elected at General election or by election which is decided on a simple majority. It is held every 5 years and everyone over the age of 18 can vote. Parliament and the Queen represent legislative power. The British democratic system depends on the two strongest parties- Conservative and Labor. The party which wins the majority of sets forms the Government and its leader becomes the Prime Minister. Present Prime Minister is Theresa May from Conservative party. The Prime Minister chooses 20 Ministers to form Cabinet. The leader of opposition form Shadow Cabinet. The United Kingdom constitution is unwritten. It is based on agreement, tradition and common law.

Karlovy Vary Region

15. března 2018 v 8:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

Karlovy Vary Region

The Karlovy Vary Region is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the westernmost part of its historical region of Bohemia. It is named after its capital Karlovy Vary. It's the third smallest region in the Czech Republic right after Prague and Liberec Region. It takes only slightly above four percent of the whole Czech Republic. When it comes to population, it's the least populated region with only 300 000 people. Highest peak is Klínovec Mountain with its 1 244 meters which is a part of Ore Mountains. The region is divided into three districts with three district cities: Cheb district, Karlovy Vary district, Sokolov district- all three of them have similar population. The region is world famous for its spas, including Karlovy Vary and Mariánské lázně.
The spa makes use of 12 of the total of 60 springs, which temperatures ranging from 42°C to 72°C. The Geyser Colonnade (Vřídlo), the temperature of which is 72°C, spurting in a modern covered room, in the hottest spring in Karlovy Vary. Legends say this particular spring was discovered by Charles IV himself, when he was hunting in the area. The Market Colonnade, made of timber with carved ornaments in 1883 is slightly colder. The monument Mill Colonnade, designed by architect Zítek in 19th century is the most beautiful of the Karlovy Vary colonnades. It is designed in the Neo-Renaissance style with 124 Corinthians columns and a cassette ceiling. Many people seek the mineral waters of Karlovy Vary because of its healing powers. The springs positively affect any digestive medical condition or problems with metabolism. People who recover there from illness of the digestive system and glands have many places where they can spend time waiting for the next procedures. They can see many churches; visit the gallery of the 20th century Czech Art, walk along the colonnades or make a short trip to the surroundings hills, to see the lookout towers and viewpoints. Two cableways go up the hills from the Pupp Hotel or from the Imperial Sanatorium. The town is well-known not only for the springs, but also for the world famous Moser Glass and Porcelain Works and the distillery producing the Becherovka herb liqueur.
The region is well-known for its spas and is responsible over half of the county's spa industry. Twelve spas can be found in the city of Karlovy Vary alone. Other famous spa towns in the region include Františkovy Lázně, Mariánské Lázně. Lázně Kynžvart a Jáchymov. The spas are visited not only by Czechs but by people from the rest of Europe, Russians, Germans, Arabs as well as people from the USA. Karlovy Vary spa wafers, a food item from the region, was awarded protected designation of origin status by the European Commission in 2011. The water from the region is used in locally produced beverages including Mattoni and Aquila from the village of Kyselka. The region is also part of the so-called Black Triangle, an area of heavy industrialization and environment damage on the three-way border of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic.
In Karlovy Vary region is served by Karlovy Vary airport, which handles on average more than 100 000 passenger each year. The region is also home to two other airports, neither of which are used for passengers flights. These are Cheb Airport, the oldest airport in the country, and Mariánské lázně Airport. The region lacks any motorways. The unfinished D6 expressway passes through the region, linking Cheb and Karlovy Vary to Prague. There are also operating railway lines with several railway stations. The length of operated railway lines in the region is 493 kilometers.
As for cultural events, I should talk about International Film Festival undoubtedly the most significant social and cultural event.
In Karlovy Vary there are many places to visit, for example Stag/Deer Jump which is a freely accessible lookout viewpoint. The wooden arbour on a rock bill near Jelení skok (Deer Jump) directly above the spa centre is probably the oldest lookout structure in Karlovy Vary. The arbour was built in 1804. Not that fast from the Deer Jump is Daina outlook tower, the best view of the city. If people are interested in seeing street artists, they should totally see City park. A great looking buildings in Karlovy Vary are Church of Saint Mary and Russian Church of Saints Peter and Paul.

Prague

14. března 2018 v 8:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

Prague

Prague is the Capital city of the Czech Republic. It has about 1, 2 million inhabitants. It is the center of government, economics and culture. It's the 15th largest city in the European Union. Prague is also one of the 14 regions. It is situated in the central Bohemia and it spreads out on both banks on river Vltava. The modern economy of Prague is largely service and export-based. It has the highest performing regional economy of the Czech Republic.
Prague is the site of many sports events, national stadiums and teams such as Sparta Praha and Slavia Praha representing football, HC Sparta Praha and HC Slavia Praha representing ice hockey. Every May there is Prague International Marathon. And In Czech Republic the most famous sport event, Hockey Championship, is held in O2 Arena in Prague.
In the real centre of Prague is Wenceslas Square; at the top are the National Museum and the statue of the Czech patron, Saint Wenceslas, on his horse. The square is mostly crowded with tourist, because there are many shops at each side. Very famous is Old Town Square where the dominants are Master Jan Hus Monument, Saint Nicholas Church (a baroque church) and the Astronomical Clock which strikes every 60 minutes, tourist gather here to see the procession of the Apostles, their figures appear in two windows. The Clock shows phases of the Moon. Charles Bridge, which connects the Old Town and the Lesser Town, built in the gothic style. Originally it was called Prague Bridge. It is said that the inhabitants of Prague added eggs during its construction and that's why it is so strong. There are two towers on each side of the bridge. You can see street artists on the bridge. The seat of the President is called Prague Castle; it is block of palaces, churches and gardens. It has three courtyards. The gates are guarded by guards in uniforms. One part of Prague Castle is Saint Vitus Cathedral. Charles IV started its construction in the 14th century and it was completed in the 20th century. It is a huge gothic building with Saint Wenceslas Chapel where for example Charles IV and his four wives are buried. Another part of Prague Castle is The Golden Line, which is a picturesque street with small houses, where alchemists, guards and craftsmen used to live. Some interesting buildings in Prague are The Dancing House, example of deconstructivism, and Saint George Church, built in Romanesque style. And some more places for example Petřín tower (a view tower), Zoo and Botanic Gardens in Troja, Old Jewish Town, Old-New Synagogue, Jewish Cemetery, Vyšehrad Castle with its cemetery of Czech artists and writers called "Slavín".
The city boasts more than ten major museums, along with numerous theaters, galleries, cinemas and other historical exhibits. The National Theatre was built in the 19th century. Inside it was decorated by the best artists, such as Mikoláš Aleš, František Ženíšek and Josef Václav Myslbek. You can visit here ballet performance, opera or drama. Other theatres in Prague are: Tyl Theatre, Vinohrady, Lucerna Hall and Broadway. In Prague there are also State Opera, National Galleria, at the Prague Castle, and National Museum with mineral, archeological and zoological collections.
It Prague there are a lot of opportunities for shopping and entertainment. The most famous boutiques are in the Paris Street. Prague is an important road, rail, air and river transport junction. Ruzyně Airport was renamed and new name is Airport of Václav Havel. The city contains several universities and colleges including the oldest university in Central and Eastern Europe, the Charles University founded in 14th century.

The Czech Republic and the Czech Political System

13. března 2018 v 8:00 | Another |  Maturita Anglický jazyk

The Czech Republic and the Czech Political System

The Czech Republic is located in the middle of Europe. Because of that, it is often called "The Heart of Europe". It shares borders with Germany in the northwest and west, Austria in the south, Slovakia in the east and Poland in the northeast. The country is made up of 3 territories- Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. These ate then divided into 14 regions with their own regional assembly and regional governor. Prague is the capital and one of the 14 regions; it's also the largest city with more than 1 million citizens. The overall population of the Czech Republic is 10,5 million people. This number of people mostly consists of Czechs, but they are also Moravians, Slovaks, Poles and Silesians. There is also over half a million of foreigners, which includes Romani people, Ukrainians, Russians, Vietnamese, German, etc…
The landscape is hilly and quite mountainous around the borders; in fact the mountains such as Krkonoše, Šumava or Krušné hory form natural boundaries. The highest peak is Sněžka Mountain with 1600 meters located in Krkonoše mountain range. From the central of the country to the south, it is mainly lowlands. Through the country flow many rivers, for example the Elbe and the Vltava, which is also the longest river. Southers Bohemia is famous for its many ponds. The Czech Republic has moderate continental climate, which means warm summers and cold, snowy winters. The temperature difference between summer and winter is relatively high, due to the landlocked geographical position. The coldest month is usually January and the warmest is July.
The Czech republic is full of interesting places, for example Karlovy Vary (which is a city where International Film Festival is held every year), Říp mountain/hill (the place where according to legend Father Czech proclaimed the land before him as Bohemia), Karlštejn ( a famous castle built by Charles IV as a safe place for crown jewels), Macocha (an abyss more than 138 meters deep, part of the Moravia Karst-famous for stalactite caves), Pravčická brána (the largest natural sandstone arch in Europe) and of course Prague (capital city, historical, political and cultural centre).
The Czech Republic is a sovereign, united and democratic state. Its government is divided into three branches: The legislative (represented by the Parliament), The executive (represented by the president and government) and The judicial (represented by the courts at various levels).
The Parliament consists of two chambers- The chamber of Deputies and The Senate. The 200 Deputies and 81 Senators have the exclusive duty of making laws. These two groups of members of Parliament differ in the way in which they are elected. The elections of the Chambers of Deputies take place every four years while every two years one third of Senate is renewed. When these times come every citizen from the age of 18 has the right to vote. The Parliament's main task is to pass laws, ratify international treaties and decide sending troops abroad. The Parliament is a law-making body. A new law-to-be, a bill, can be proposed by a deputy, a group of deputies, the senate, the government or higher-level authorities. The bill first passed by the Chamber of Deputies, which debates and ultimately votes on it. A bill that has been passed by the Chambers is then submitted to the Senate, where the process begins anew. The law must be approved by the government. A law must be signed by the head of the Chamber of Deputies, the Prime Minister and the President.
The President is elected every five years by the citizens, but he/she can't serve more than two terms in office in a row. The President represents the state abroad and concludes foreign treaties. He has also many duties in relation to the other bodies of government: appointment of all the judges, generals of the army, ambassadors and other officials. The President is also the commander-in-chief of the army. In the law-making process he can exercise the veto, which means not signing a bill within assigned 15days and returning it to the Parliament (where the voting starts all over again, but if it passes, it will ignore the requirement of President's signature). In relation to the judicial power, he can grant a pardon to a convicted person or declare an amnesty. His task is also to call a general election. He appoints the Prime Minister on whose suggestion he then appoints the other members of the government. The President is not responsible for his activities, cannot be charged with any crime, he can only prosecuted for high treason. Current President is Miloš Zeman.
The Government is composed of the premier, the vice-premiers and the ministers. Ministries, headed by ministers, enforce laws made by Parliament. Ministries of: Interior, Foreign Affairs, Defense, Industry, Commerce, Agriculture, Education, Justice, Transport, Health, Labor and Social Affairs, Culture and Finance.
The Judicial power is divided into a system of courts, starting with the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court and going down to the courts at all levels of regional government. Judge serve for an unlimited period of time, must have a good reputation and must be professional lawyer.
In the elections the citizens can choose from a variety of political parties (for example The Civil Democratic Party, The Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party, The Social Democratic Party, Green Party, The Czech-Moravian Communist Party, Top 09 and ANO movement) which are distinguished as- the left wing, moderate and right wing. The winning party can then form a coalition with other parties which then cooperate. These parties also retain the majority of seats in the Chamber of Deputies.